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King John

Le più belle rappresentazioni di guerrieri

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    MONETAZIONE ROMANA del I Secolo  a.C.  (dal 100 al 45 a.C.)

Denario Guerriero e toro   D   Testa laureata dell'Italia a sinistra, con collana ed orecchino a un pendente. Sotto il mento: X. Dietro: VITELIU (in osco e retrogrado)     Guerriero stante di fronte, con la testa elmata volta a destra; con corazza e mantello, si appoggia con la mano destra alla lancia avente la punta rivolta in basso e stringe con la sinistra l'elsa della spada; il piede sinistro poggia sul corpo disteso della lupa romana (? o calpesta uno stendardo romano). A destra un toro accovacciato di fronte. Nell'esergo una lettera di controllo.   Ag   Ø  17-20 mm  2,98-4,6 g   89 a. C. 

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Opliti greci.

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Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 465-430 BC. Warrior advancing right, holding shield and spear / Triskeles within incuse square. Cf. SNG France 12–3; SNG von Aulock 4483 (same rev. die); SNG Copenhagen –. 10.81g, 21mm.

Very Fine. Unusually well struck for issue. Rare with warrior holding spear.
From the Mark Christenson Collection; 
Ex Classical Numismatic Group 94, 18 September 2013, lot 665;
Ex Daniel Koppersmith Collection, Classical Numismatic Group 87, 18 May 2011, lot 573.

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Bella moneta!! :good:

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Bella moneta!

@@Caio153 Verissimo.

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Mantinea
The coinage of Mantinea of c. 370 -360
Estimate: CHF 4'500.00
Drachm (Silver, 5.69 g 2), c. 370-360s. Bearded warrior, nude from the waist down, wearing traveling hat, cuirass and special shoes, dancing a ‘war’ dance to right, holding upright spear in his right hand and another transversely over his left shoulder with his left. Rev. Jugate busts of the Dioscouri to left on top of a low altar ornamented with triglyphs and metopes. BMC 6. MG 238. SNG Cop 246. Traité III 957, pl. CCVI, 34. Extremely rare. Uncertain countermark on the obverse, otherwise, good very fine.
Ex Münzen und Medaillen 85, 11 April 1997, 100. For the meaning of this extraordinary type, see. L. Lacroix, Les Monnaies de Mantinée et les traditions arcadiennes, Bull. Ac. R. Belg. 1967, pp. 303-311. Since 1888 the figure on the obverse has always been identified as Odysseus or as a fisherman, but, as Lacroix shows, it is actually a warrior doing a kind of Pyrrhic dance for which the Mantineans were famous. This would have been a singularly appropriate type to celebrate the refoundation of the city; it was accompanied by Mantinea’s first bronzes (see lots 1477-1478 below).

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Coins of Thessaly, the BCD Collection
Ainianes  RESULT 13.000 CHF
Circa 80s (- 40s?) BC. Trihemidrachm (Silver, 7.40 g 12), Reduced Aiginetic, Hypata. Eukrates. Head of Athena Parthenos to right, wearing an Attic helmet adorned with Pegasos, tendril, and four horse protomes. Rev. AINIANWN/EUKRATHS Phemios, as a slinger, nude but for chlamys over his shoulder and sword on baldric, standing facing, head turned to right, shooting his sling to right; behind him, two spears leaning against his right leg; to right, trophy. De Callataÿ 2004, 22 ( this coin ). SNG Copenhagen 13. Extremely rare. Attractively toned and very pretty. Nearly extremely fine. Ex Sternberg XI, 20 November 1981, 85 (CHF 1900) and from the collection of G. Philipsen, Hirsch XXV, 29 November 1909, 578.
The late coinage of the Ainianes is a very strange one, traditionally dated to c. 168-146: this is not conceivably possible. De Callataÿ’s theory of a post-Sullan date for them (in his study of 2004) just has to be correct, though the chronological extent of the coinage may be longer than he suggested. While stylistic comparisons with Athenian New Style tetradrachms are not really helpful, the heads here do look rather post-Sullan in date (compare to the Nestor- Mnaseas group, Thompson 1205-1221 for example). Another factor is the appearance of the magistrate’s name on the obverse, a practice found on Achaian League issues of the 1st century (as those of Elis in BCD Peloponnesos 686-691). As for the denomination: the usual explanation is that they are reduced weight Attic didrachms (they usually weigh from around 7.40 to 7.70), especially since they bear a head of Athena Parthenos. De Callataÿ believes this and, knowing him, he’s probably right. But why on earth should they be: this would be an extremely unusual denomination, one that was nearly completely foreign to central Greece (save for Leukas, far to the west - but see below). In any case, they would have to be very reduced weight Attic since even the latest Athenian tetradrachms are around 16 g and more. No, it seems much more likely that they were produced on the dominant standard used in most of Greece: the reduced Aiginetic, which results in their being perfect trihemidrachms, based on a hemidrachm of c. 2.40-2.50 g. One may repost by pointing out that trihemidrachms would be pretty unusual too, but what else can they be? In any case, while a good number of these coins were originally issued, only a very few survived, indicating that they, and their denomination, were not particularly popular! However, BCD has reminded me of the very rare issues, identified as Attic staters , that were produced by Thyrreion (as BCD Akarnanien 403-409). These pieces also bear obverse heads of Athena taken from Athenian New Style issues, but have Athena Promachos on the reverse. They have been dated by Liampi to c. 94 BC and they are distinctly heavier than the comparable pieces of Ainianes that average around 7.50 g. The coins from Thyrreion were a very short-lived, prestige issue (only two obverse and six reverse dies are known for them, all signed by a single magistrate), but they agree in weight with the much larger issues of Leukas, normally dated to c. 167-100 and must be contemporary with them. The fact that the Ainianes pieces are appreciably lighter, implies, as we have written here, that they are later still, but their use of the head of Athena Parthenos as an obverse type must mean that the staters (they are almost certainly Attic didrachms, albeit light ones) of Thyrreion were known to the mint masters of Ainianes.

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Auction Lot Date Estimate Result Auction 4 1298 (« | ») 10. May 2011 200 CHF 1'500 CHF

 

NOMOS Coins of Thessaly, the BCD Collection

Pharsalos
Late 5th-mid 4th century BC. Tetrachalkon (Bronze, 21mm, 9.26 g 12). Helmeted head of Athena Parthenos facing, turned slightly to the left, with shield over her left shoulder and spear over her right. Rev. FAR Armored Thessalian horseman riding right, brandishing flail at an enemy soldier who flees to right; behind horseman to left, soldier walking right with staff over his shoulder. Lavva 312 ff. var. Rogers 502 var. An attractive piece with a greenish brown patina, but with traces of corrosion on the reverse. Nearly extremely fine.

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Il più antico presentatarm raffigurato su una moneta

 

Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG

 

Auction 88 , lot 545, 8. October 2015, Estimate1'500 CHF, Result 1'900 CHF 

 

Campania, Atella 
Biunx circa 216-211, Æ 12.86 g. Laureate head of Jupiter r.; behind, two pellets. Rev. Two Italic soldiers presenting swords to each other and swearing over piglet; in l. field, two pellets. In exergue, legend in Oscan characters. Sambon 1054. Historia Numorum Italy 466.
Very rare. Lovely green patina with some minor encrustations, otherwise extremely fine Ex Sambon 1901, von Wotoch, 52; Hirsch XV, 1906, Philipsen, 158; Rollin & Feuardent 1919, Collignon, 4; M&M 76, 1991, 7; NAC 21, 2001, 3 and NAC 27, 2004, 4 sales.
From the A.D.M. collection.
 

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Salve,

Apporto il mio umile contributo incollando una pagina dedicata agli opliti ed alle loro tattiche.

Hoplite

Men wear their helmets and their breastplates for their own needs, but they carry shields for the men of the entire line.

--Plutarch, Moralia

The hoplite phalanx was the perfect manifestation of classical Greek society on the battlefield. Made up of middle-class men who had day jobs, the phalanx was made to decide a war in a single bloody struggle.

Equipment

The hoplite's armor--the panoply--consisted of a shield, helmet, breastplate, greaves (plate armor worn around the lower leg), sword, spear, and tunic, and weighed about seventy pounds. All this on a soldier who himself probably weighed no more than 150 pounds.

The hoplite's shield was his defining piece of equipment, even lending its name, hoplon, to the soldier himself. It was a large concave piece of wood, rested on the left shoulder, and stretching down to the soldier's knees. The shield was large enough to protect the right side of the man to each soldier's left, and so formed a wall behind which the hoplite was protected.

The rest of the armor was made of thick bronze plate, and was so heavy that the soldiers would not don their armor until the moments before the charge began. In particular, the helmet (always the soldier's least favorite bit of equipment, then as now) was frequently tilted far back on his head when the soldier was not in combat.

The phalanx is recognized by its bristle of spears, and the spear was indeed the principal offensive weapon of the hoplite. Eight feet long, it was capped with an iron spearhead on one end, and a bronze butt-spike on the other. There is some doubt as to whether it was held underhand or above the shoulder. The butt-spike was useful as a secondary weapon for dispatching trampled-upon foes, or as a primary weapon after the spear shattered, as it usually did, upon impact. The hoplite's short sword was typically considered to be a sort of weapon of last resort.

Each hoplite was responsible for the purchase and upkeep of his own armor, and so membership in the hoplite phalanx was restricted to those who could afford the expense. The title of hoplite was thus one of some minor prestige, and carried with it some additional political rights.

Battle

Hoplites were organized in the phalanx as row upon row of men, typically about eight ranks deep, and stretching abreast for a quarter mile or more. The commanding general--the strategos--took position in the front rank, at the extreme right--the most exposed position in the entire army. Greek generals typically had short careers.

Prior to combat, the paen or battle hymn was sung, then the phalanx advanced upon its foe at a trot. The Spartan army was an exception; it saw the paen as needless bravado and was known for its slow, methodical pace, set by musician-boys who marched behind the line. The first four ranks of men marched with spears level, while the rear ranks kept their spears mostly vertical, where they provided an effective defense against missile weapons. The large shields on the left side of each soldier provided an incentive for everyone to snuggle up against the man on his right. This formed the wall of shields that was so crucial to the phalanx's effectiveness, but there was a definite trend for each army to drift noticeably to its right.

As the lines neared each other, both sides broke into a run. The challenge for the general was to maintain cohesion (and the shield wall) while still gaining enough momentum for the initial crash. When the armies did crash, among the literal rain of spear splinters as the spears shattered, the battle became a scrum of each army trying to push through the other's line. The forward ranks did what hacking and spearing they could, while the rear ranks drove the enemy forward by pressing their shields into the backs of the men in front of them. The pressure, the noise, the confusion, the gore at the front of the line were immense.

The Idea

The Greek phalanx was nearly unstoppable in its intended mode of combat: head-on, on straight, level ground, with adequate protection on the flanks. Hoplite battles frequently took place in long, straight valleys--so common in the Greek mainland--where the phalanx could occupy the entire width of the valley and thus protect its flanks and its rear. A single site would frequently be the location of battle after battle through the ages, its desirability as a battlefield undiminished.

Hoplite combat was centered around a single idea: that battle should be bloody, horrible, and decisive. This fit the needs of an agrarian society that could not spare its men to a professional army, but needed them back in time for harvest. Battles were short, and casualties were surprisingly low (proportionally to the combatants) in comparison with modern combat. Through most of their history, the ancient Greeks meant to keep wars short--even just a single battle--so that people combatuld get back to their lives. If they frequently judged war to be necessary, it was still just a necessary evil.

Sources

Most of this information comes straight out of

Victor David Hanson, The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece. University of California Press, 1989.

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@@Eolo

contributo graditissimo. Grazie (ho finito i "mipiace" per oggi; domani provvedo)

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The hoplite phalanx was the perfect manifestation of classical Greek society on the battlefield. Made up of middle-class men who had day jobs, the phalanx was made to decide a war in a single bloody struggle.

 

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The hoplite phalanx was the perfect manifestation of classical Greek society on the battlefield. Made up of middle-class men who had day jobs, the phalanx was made to decide a war in a single bloody struggle.

Salve,

Già, questa è falange macedone: lancia lunga (serissa) e scudo piccolo!

Una volta ho letto un articolo sull'esperienza di chi stava in prima fila, ho cercato di recuperarlo sul web ma purtroppo non l'ho trovato.

Sera.......

A.

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Inviato (modificato)

Questa è la falange classica: scudo grande (hoplon), lancia (dory) e spada (xiphos).

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Buon martedì,

Per rimanere in topic invio questa foto di una moneta molto comune, a mio avviso molto bella nella sua rappresentazione bellica

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Saluti

A.

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Il combattimento tra due cavalieri raffigurato su un denario repubblicano romano. 

M. Servilius, Servilia, Denarius, Rome, 100 BC, AR, gr. 3,8, mm 20, Head of Roma right; control-mark behind; ROMA, Two warriors fighting, each with horse behind; M SERVEILI M F in exergue, control-mark below. RRC 327/1; BMCRR Rome 1660; Servilia 13; Catalli 2001, 445.Perfectly struck. Lightly toned. About fdc.The moneyer is probably the brother of P. Servilius C. f. M. n. Vatia Isauricus, cos. i 79 BC. The reverse type probably refers to the propensity for ordalia, the single combat, of the moneyerÕs ancestor M. Servilius Pulex Geminus, cos. 202 (Liv., XLV, 39, 16-19; Plut., Paul. 31,2-5).

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Addirittura qui abbiamo la raffigurazione di un assedio...

 

ANCIENT COINS, ROMAN, C. Numonius Vaala (41 BC). Silver Denarius, 3.74g, 12h. Mint of Rome. C NVMONIVS VAALA. Male head facing right. Rev. VAA[LA] in exergue, soldier rushing to left, attacking a rampart defended by two further soldiers (Cr 514/2; Syd 1087; RBW 1792; RCV 502). Good portrait, light banker’s mark on obverse, nearly extremely fine, lightly toned. Rare . ex Spink Numismatic Circular, October 2005, vol CXIII, no.5, item RM2635 (illustrated on the front cover) $ 4,500
 

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Soldati dalla Samaria del IV secolo a.C.

Samaria (late 4th century BC). AR ma'ah-obol (10mm, 0.60 gm, 3h). Two soldiers standing with spears and shields confronting each other, within square border / Two figures standing confronting each other the left figure holds a long scepter or spear and the right figure, in incuse, holds a shield and long scepter or spear. M-Q SC 50. M-Q CS 90. Samuels 25 (this coin). NGC XF 4/5 - 4/5. Ex Shoshana II (Heritage Long Beach, 5 September 2012), lot 20041. The soldiers depicted on this remarkable little coin appear to be the Persian king's personal body guard, the famous Immortals, who numbers were kept perpetually at 10,000. Similar images can still be seen on bas reliefs from the royal palace at Persepolis. Result USD 850

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E qui, invece, abbiamo un oplita (moneta simile a quella del post 64 ma meglio conservata).

 

GRIECHISCHE MÜNZEN 
PERSISCHE SATRAPEN IN KLEINASIEN 
Orontas, Satrap in Mysien um 357-352 v. Chr. Drachme. Nackter Hoplit mit konischem Helm hinter seinem grossen Rundschild n.l. kniend, Lanze in der Rechten haltend. Rv. OΡO - NT - A Geflügelte Eberprotome n.r. 2,55 g. SNG BN Paris 1164A (Lampsakos). Traité Tf. LXXXVIII,22. Sehr selten . Kristalline Oberfläche.
Sehr schön Aus Auktion Numismatik Lanz, München 153 (2011),319.

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Concludo richiamando i guerrieri greci per eccellenza: i bronzi di Riace. Ecco la ricostruzione dell'aspetto originario di uno di essi.

 

Immagine tratta dal seguente sito:

 

http://www.famedisud.it/da-una-mostra-a-milano-si-affaccia-una-nuova-ipotesi-sullidentita-dei-bronzi-di-riace/

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Tetradramma del re di Peonia Teutamados dalla Gorny & Mosch 175 del marzo 2009.

 

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GRIECHEN - KÖNIGREICH PAIONIEN
Teutamados Tetradrachme (13,45g). 4. Jh. v. Chr. Vs.: Bärtiger Kopf n. l. (Zeus). Rs.: ΤΕΥΤΑΜΑΔΟ, gerüsteter Reiter ersicht einen zu Boden gegangenen Gegner. Links im Feld Bogen. Unicum von historischer Bedeu­tung! Leichte Tönung, vz. Ex Sammlung M.C.; Ex Tkalec 2005, 45.

 

La scena sul rovescio è nota dai tetra di Patraos, ma questo è un unicum attribuito a Teutamados.

 

apollonia

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Concludo richiamando i guerrieri greci per eccellenza: i bronzi di Riace. Ecco la ricostruzione dell'aspetto originario di uno di essi.

Immagine tratta dal seguente sito:

http://www.famedisud.it/da-una-mostra-a-milano-si-affaccia-una-nuova-ipotesi-sullidentita-dei-bronzi-di-riace/

Con l elmo corinzio, la testa ricorda il leucippo dello statere metapontino o del grosso bronzo siracusano.

Non posso postare le immagini al momento..

Skuby

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Con l elmo corinzio, la testa ricorda il leucippo dello statere metapontino 

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Auction Lot Date Estimate Result Auction 2 91 (« | ») 18. May 2010 4'000 CHF 3'200 CHF
ARGOLIS, Argos. Circa 420/10 BC. Diobol (Silver, 2.13 g 6). Corinthian helmet to right. Rev. Corinthian helmet facing with Α to right; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1036 (this coin). BMC 29 = Traité III, 613 pl. CCXV, 9. SNG Copenhagen 20 var. Very rare and beautifully toned. Extremely fine. From the BCD Collection, LHS 96, 8 May 2006, 1036, ex Münzen und Medaillen 85, 11 April 1997, 95 and M&M FPL 139, October 1954, 16.
This very rare coin seems to commemorate a short-live alliance between Argos and Corinth.

 

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ITALIEN, SIZILIEN / Mamertini in Sizilien, AE 20 (220-200 v.Chr.). Kopf des Zeus r. Rs.Krieger mit Speer und Schild r. schreitend. 6,45g. SNG ANS-, f.vz

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