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King John

I MEDAGLIONI DI TARSO E QUELLI DI ABOUKIR

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King John
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Apro questa discussione con lo scopo principale di proporre una carrellata di immagini e non tanto con lo scopo di prendere posizione sulla vexata quaestio dell'autenticità dei Medaglioni di Aboukir, su cui tanto si è scritto. Anche sulla scelta della sezione sono stato in dubbio perchè a rigore avrei dovuto aprire una discussione nella sezione delle Romane imperiali...

Partiamo con le immagini dei Medaglioni di Tarso  che provengono da  un ritrovamento accertato del 1863 (quindi si tratta di esemplari certamente autentici). Essi furono acquistati a Parigi da un ricchissimo conte polacco che in seguito, su pressione  di Napoleone III in persona, li donò alla Biblothéque Nationale de France. Furono rinvenuti  vicino a Tarso, in Cilicia, ed erano niketeria, vale a dire premi di vittoria, che, nei tempi antichi, erano offerti  alla presenza dell'imperatore ai vincitori dei Giochi Olimpici e Pitici. È probabile che questi medaglioni siano stati coniati da Alessandro Severo che, come molti imperatori, dedicò un vero culto ad Alessandro Magno (IV secolo a.C). Questi medaglioni di vittoria fanno parte di una serie eccezionale che glorifica Alessandro Magno, suo padre Filippo II e sua madre Olimpia, serie battuta sotto il regno dell'ultimo imperatore della dinastia severiana: Severo Alessandro (222-235 d.C), omonimo del glorioso conquistatore macedone. 
 

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King John
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I venti medaglioni cosiddetti di Aboukir , alto Egitto, invece,  comparvero sul mercato antiquario  ad Alessandria nei primi anni del 1900. Secondo alcuni provenivano da un ritrovamento ad Aboukir o nei dintorni, secondo altri rientrano nel più grande ritrovamento di aurei romani mai fatto in Egitto, quello di Karnak del 1901 con oltre 1800 aurei principalmente dell'età di Diocleziano conservati in due giare;  altri ancora li giudicarono certamente falsi fin da subito ritenendoli di fattura simile ma inevitabilmente inferiore ai tre medaglioni, sicuramente autentici, di Tarso.

Venduti inizialmente quasi al peso dell'oro in seguito divennero richiestissimi da  musei e collezionisti privati che se li contesero aspramente. Di questi 5 furono acquisiti da Dressel per il Gabinetto Numismatico di Berlino.  Altri 11 da John Pierpont Morgan ceduti in seguito all'asta e acquistati dall'abilissimo mercante armeno  Gulbenkian presso il cui museo di Lisbona si trovano tuttora.

La genuinità dei medaglioni di Aboukir è stata messa in discussione piu' volte ma finora nessuna prova decisiva è stata portata a sostegno dell'una o dell'altra tesi.

 

Edited by King John

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great, sister of Alexander I of Epirus also known as Alexander Molossus, daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, and fourth wife of Philip II the king of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200 - 250 AD ?).
Obverse: Bust of Olympias in three-quarter view to the right. She is wearing a diadem and has her head partly veiled. Her left hand is lifting the veil.
Reverse: Nereid riding on a sea-bull to left, left upper arm, right wrist and both ankles with brooches; in left hand reins, amid the waves two shells and two dolphins.
Inscription: -
Dimensions: Diameter: 5.8 cm.
Thickness: 0.8 cm
Weight: 120.06 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 531; Q.
Provenance: Thessalonika. Archaeological Museum.
P.S.: The gold medallion was bought at an auction in November 1962 at the behest of the then-prime minister Konstantinos Karamanlis, and was handed over to the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki which had just opened to the public a month before.

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō), also known as "Paean", the older name in Mycenean Greek. Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200 - 250 AD ?).
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo to left, in left field, a laurel branch.
Reverse: Alexander, diademed and with a garment around his hips, sitting to the right on a bench. In front of him, Nike turned left, her left hand supported by a round shield, her right hand holding an Attic helmet. Shield decorated with Achilles slaying Penthesileia.
Inscription: BACIΛΕVC ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC.
Dimensions: Diameter: 4.1 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 47.45 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 532; U.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

35364048_382931435532162_7304004654679982080_n.jpg

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Caracalla, (Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200 - 250 AD ?).
Obverse: Cuirassed and laureate bust of Caracalla with moustache seen from the front with sword and shield to left. Over his shoulder, a spear nearly horizontal. Breastplate with head of Medusa, shoulder clasp ornamented. From his right shoulder hangs a balteus, the sword itself with hilt in form of an eagle. Around his waist, the cingulum militare. The shield bears the diademed head of Alexander in profile to the left, above Alexander on horse hunting a lion.
Reverse: Nereid riding on a sea- centaur to right, who carries a trident over his shoulder and holds in his left hand a fish. Amid the waves four dolphins.
Inscription: -
Dimensions: Diameter: 5.7 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 69.42 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 531; S.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great, sister of Alexander I of Epirus also known as Alexander Molossus, daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, and fourth wife of Philip II the king of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200 - 250 AD ?).
Obverse: Bust Olympias, draped and veiled to right. At outer right, a wand around which a serpent is coiled.
Reverse: Perseus with harpa leading Andromeda, who wears a coat, away from the rocks, where she had been held, down to the right. In front, the dead beast (ketos), on the right, Eros with his bow to the left.
Inscription: -
Dimensions: Diameter: 4.6 cm.
Axis: 11. 
Weight: 58.07 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 530; P.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

kk.jpg

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200-250 AD ?).
Obverse: Cuirassed bust ofAlexander with shield and Attic helmet (no cheek pieces) seen from the front to right. Head turned upward. On the breastplate, a representation of Alexander with spear in his right hand and sword (parazonium) sitting on heap of weapons to right, poor conservation . On left side, Nike crowning Alexander with palm branch and on the right another crowning female figure to right with wand/sword (?) in her left hand . On the helmet, Ganymede is represented with the eagle of Zeus. Helmet it is also decorated with a serpent.
Reverse: Nereid, to right, riding on a ketos to the left. With her left hand she holds a garment above herself and in her right an unidentified object, possibly a seashell.
Inscription: -
Dimensions: Diameter: 4.7 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 47.89 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 530; N.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

jjj.jpg

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great, sister of Alexander I of Epirus also known as Alexander Molossus, daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, and fourth wife of Philip II the king of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200 - 250 AD ?).
Obverse: Athena wearing peplos, aegis, and Corinthian helmet sitting on throne to left. Her right hand holds bowl (phiale) offering food to a serpent, which is coiled in an olive tree left. Left hand of Athena on back of throne.
Inscription: BACΛΕΩC / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
Dimensions: Diameter: 4.6 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 48.89 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 530; O.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

y.jpg

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200-250 AD ?).
Obverse: Cuirassed bust of Alexander with shield and Attic helmet (no cheek pieces) seen from the front to right. Head turned upward. On the breastplate, a representation of Alexander with spear in his right hand and sword (parazonium) sitting on heap of weapons to right. On left side, Nike crowning Alexander with palm branch and on the right another crowning female figure to right with wand/sword (?) in her left hand . On the helmet, a cavalry battle is represented. Horseman on left in Greek armor, the one on the right in blouse, trousers, and wearing a tiara.
Reverse: Athena wearing a chiton with aegis standing to right, a spear is held diagonally down with her left hand. She is wearing an Attic helmet (again without cheek pieces). In her right hand she holds a Corinthian helmet, which is decorated with the figure of a horse (?) and possibly its rider, too. On the ground, a coiled serpent to the right. Behind Athena, a profiled column, on its top, an owl to the right. On the column, an inscription in three lines: ΟΛΥΜ / ΠΙΑ / ΔΟC. On the left side, an olive tree.
Inscription: ΟΛΥΜ / ΠΙΑ / ΔΟC
Dimensions: Diameter: 5.5 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 77.25 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 529-530; M.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

P.S.: This magnificent medallion, bears the inscription "ΟΛΥΜ / ΠΙΑ / ΔΟC", that possibly reads "Olympic games of the year 274", a date corresponding to AD 242-243. It is possible that the "Medallions of Aboukir" were intended as prizes to be given out at that event. Alternatively, they may have been issued by Emperor Caracalla (AD 198-217), who is potrayed on some of them. Caracalla liked to be compared to the great king and conquerror Alexander of Macedon (ruled 336-323 BC).Fittingly enough, the only Roman emperor depicted on these medallions is Caracalla, who himself was famous for his very personal "Alexander-mania".

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200-250 AD ?).
Obverse: Facing cuirassed bust of Alexander wearing a diadem with round shield (only part visible) and spear on left shoulder. Head slightly turned to his left and eyes gazing upward. Hair with anastole and short whiskers visible on his left cheek. On shield, naked female bust seen from the front, holding a mantle above her head, above and circled by six stars (always two by two), the confronted heads of Helios and Selene on crescent in profile. Above, along the rim of the shield, five signs of the zodiac from left to right: aries, taurus, gemini, cancer, and leo (only back visible). On Alexanders armor, a youthful giant. On right shoulder clasp: Athena in peplos with spear to right, and aegis, plumed helmet and oval shield.
Reverse: Nereid riding on a sea- centaur (centaurocampus) to right, who carries a trident over his shoulder and holds in his left hand a fish. Amid the waves four dolphins.
Inscription: -
Dimensions: Diameter: 5.7 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 70.68 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 528-529; K.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

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King John
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volete che continui?

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providentiaoptimiprincipis

Ovviamente si! :) non conosco nulla di monetazione monete greche, ho aperto la discussione quasi per caso e.. Uao 😮

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200-250 AD ?).
Obverse: Cuirassed bust of Alexander with coat draping his shoulder in threequarter view to left. He is wearing an Attic helmet without cheek pieces and a high crest (decorated by a sphinx at its base). On the side of the helmet, an Artemis on horse to left; head is slightly moved forward but not turned up. Doublestruck. 
Reverse: Nike wearing a chiton to right, left foot on helmet, pointing with her left hand at oval shield, which she holds with her right. Shield is held by a winged Eros turned left. On the shield, male figure in loincloth turned left and woman turned right. Above both figures, two lines indicating a curtain (?) On extreme right, tropaion with double axe, four oval shields, armor with sword and coat, helmet, quiver, and two bows with one bow case each. On the ground, two sitting captives; on left, a bound man with Phrygian cap and trousers; on right female with coat, her left hand supporting her chin. Rim filed.
Inscription: ΒΑCΙ-ΛΕ-ΩC / ΑΛΕ-ΞΑΝΔΡΟV.
Dimensions: Diameter: 5.75 cm.
Axis: 11. 
Weight: 105.75 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 528; I.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200-250 AD ?).
Obverse: Cuirassed bust of Alexander with coat draping his shoulder in threequarter view to left. He is wearing an Attic helmet without cheek pieces and a high crest (decorated by a sphinx at its base). On the side of the helmet, an Artemis on horse to left; head is slightly moved forward but not turned up. Doublestruck. 
Reverse: Alexander with diadem on horse to right. In his right hand, a spear pointing at warrior wearing a Phrygian helmet lying on the ground, carrying a shield, right arm raised.
Inscription: ΒΑCΙ - ΛΕVC / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC.
Dimensions: Diameter: 4.6 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 52.04 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 528; H.

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Contento
ciosky68
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non ne conoscevo l'esistenza grazie Federico @King John

continua pure.

Roberto

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200-250 AD ?).
Obverse: Diademed head of Alexander with ram's horn to left, head slightly turned upward, gazing to heaven. 
Reverse: Alexander, naked, sitting to left on heap of weapons and armor. Behind him, Boukephalos with a saddlecloth made of panther skin. On both left and right a (beardless?) warrior in full armor with Attic helmet, spear, and shield. The one on the left is carrying his spear over his shoulder, the one on the right places its foot on the ground.
Inscription: BACIΛΕΩΝ ΦΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ
Dimensions: Diameter: 5.5 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 97.5 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 528; G.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

 

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King John
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"Aboukir Medallions". Roman gold medallion with Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας). (Roman Imperial Period ca. 200-250 AD ?).
Obverse: Diademed head of Alexander with ram's horn to left, head slightly turned upward, gazing to heaven. 
Reverse: Alexander in chlamys and boots fights a boar with his spear to right. A tree and two dogs on the right. At base of tree a coiled serpent.
Inscription: ΒΑCΙΛEVC / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC.
Dimensions: Diameter: 5.4 cm.
Axis: 12. 
Weight: 96.44 g.
Mint: Beroea (Macedon)?
Place of Discovery: Egypt, Aboukir.
References: Dahmen, K. - 2008 - Alexander in Gold and Silver: Reassessing Third century AD Medallions from Aboukir and Tarsos 527-528; F.
Provenance: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon.

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King John
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Avete notato??

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albania_1_lek_1926.jpg

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dux-sab

secondo me le prime tre, quelle del primo ritrovamento, sono stilisticamente eccezionali.

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King John
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27 minuti fa, dux-sab dice:

secondo me le prime tre, quelle del primo ritrovamento, sono stilisticamente eccezionali.

confermo...

Edited by King John

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King John
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continua...

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okt

Non so dire perchè ma ho l'impressione che siano dei bellissimi falsi, anche se non tutti.

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King John
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10 minuti fa, okt dice:

Non so dire perchè ma ho l'impressione che siano dei bellissimi falsi, anche se non tutti.

In effetti questa sembra essere l'impressione. Posto qui una recensione di Callatay di un libro del Professor Savio che indaga l'autenticità dei medaglioni di Aboukir.

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Edited by King John

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King John
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4.jpg

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King John
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