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Crisopoli, Costantino chiude il cerchio e conquista l'Impero (ovvero la fine del sogno tetrarchico)


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Disorientato
Illyricum65

Buongiorno,

ho trovato questo interessante video che descrive bene il quadro al termine della Tetrarchia e la battaglia decisiva per la sua fine.

Approfitto dell'occasione per creare un post "multimediale". Ok, la Storia... ma le monete?

Ve le propongo di seguito in quanto testimonianze dei protagonisti dell'evento.

Gli sconfitti:

LICINIO I:

immagine.png

https://www.coinarchives.com/8537309bcff9d6960ecf0ddeca7a9abd/img/roma/020/image00687.jpg

Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XX

Auction date: 29 October 2020

Lot number: 687

Price realized: 48,000 GBP   (Approx. 61,943 USD / 53,123 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

Lot description:

Licinius I AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 321-322. LICINIVS AVG OB D V FILII SVI, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust facing / IOVI CONS LICINI AVG, Jupiter, holding Victory on globe in right hand and sceptre in left, seated facing on high-backed throne set on platform inscribed SIC•X• SIC•XX• in two lines; at feet to left, eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, SMNΔ in exergue. RIC 41; Depeyrot 31/1; Alföldi 262; Calicó 5094; Hunter -. 5.30g, 22mm, 11h.

Fleur De Coin. Very Rare; in an exceptionally high state of preservation - certainly one of the finest specimens known.

From the Long Valley River Collection;
Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 100, 29 May 2017, lot 631 (hammer: CHF 70,000);
Ex A. Tkalec AG, 24 October 2003, lot 412.


This aureus is immediately striking for its facing portrait, a conceit rarely seen on Roman coins up until this date and not fully adopted until decades later in the 4th Century. Gold issues of Maxentius and Constantine bearing facing portraits, dating to the 310s, are the most obvious candidates for the inspiration behind this example, although some apparent innovation is extant in this aureus. The coins of the later Roman empire and onwards into the Byzantine period that are most associated with facing portraits routinely portray their subjects in a formulaic and generic manner, with little to distinguish between the physiognomical characteristics of the various emperors depicted, whereas this portrait of Licinius intimates at an intention to reflect his genuine appearance; a continuation and development of the images on the coins of Maxentius and Constantine, which were still heavily influenced by tetrarchic ideals of uniformity.

When considered alongside the best known sculptural portrait of Licinius in the Vatican Museums (XL VII 19 (511 B)), there are parallels in Licinius' depiction on this coin. Although the aureus' portrait is inherently more schematic by virtue of its medium, it is possible to see similarities in the wide eyes, positioned slightly too close together, the raised brows and the pronounced lines around his mouth and nose. A marble head in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna has also been attributed as Licinius in a compelling argument by R. R. R. Smith (The Public Image of Licinius I: Portrait Scuplture and Imperial Ideology in the Early Fourth Century, The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 87, 1997, pp.170-202), in which he specifically cites its relationship to the numismatic portraits as part of his reasoning behind the attribution (p.188). This further metes out the view that there was an attempt at individuality in the image of Licinius presented here.

While the obverse of this coin illustrates stylistic idiosyncrasy, the symbolism of the reverse iconography is indicative of the unsettled times in which this aureus was issued. In terms of technical skill and artistry, the die cutters have surpassed the quality on the obverse, achieving extraordinary detail in the depiction of Jupiter enthroned, but the semantic context of this image provides an insight into the state of the relationship between Licinius and his co-emperor Constantine in this period.

At surface level this coin, minted seemingly as part of his decennalia issue, can be read as Licinius simply giving thanks for his first ten years of co-rule with Constantine and seeking divine favour for another ten years, however the presence of OB D V (ob diem quinquennalium) in the obverse legend denotes this as marking the fifth year since his son, Licinius II, was pronounced Caesar. The presence of Jupiter, a standard type at Nicomedia, is a reflection of the differing faiths between the two emperors; as Constantine moved closer to monotheism and the Christian God, adopting the Chi-Rho symbol as a regular shield and standard device, Licinius staunchly upheld the supremacy of the traditional Roman pantheon, affiliating himself with Jupiter, who is portrayed as his patron and protector on most of his coinage. It is somewhat ironic that the year of his decennalia in 317 perhaps marked the end of peaceful co-rule with Constantine, and by the time at which this particular coin was issued it would be only a few years before the outbreak of civil war between the two emperors in 323. This conflict played out across several battles and eventually resulted in Licinius' defeat at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324 where Constantine's army fought under standards emblazoned with the Chi-Rho symbol, opposing Licinius' battle lines which were adorned with images of the gods of the Roman pantheon. Thus did the battlefield aptly mirror the succinct imagery of their respective coinage on a monumental scale.


Estimate: 45000 GBP

immagine.png

https://www.coinarchives.com/640e80e326f7412e2327d478ad5f56f8/img/roma/e78/image01778.jpg

Roma Numismatics Ltd > E-Sale 78

Auction date: 17 December 2020

Lot number: 1778

Price realized: 55 GBP   (Approx. 74 USD / 61 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

 

Lot description:

Licinius I BI Nummus. Antioch, AD 321-323. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing to left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath before, captive behind; X-IIΓ in right field, SMANTZ in exergue. RIC VII 35. 3.49g, 18mm, 11h.

Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

From a private UK collection.


Estimate: 75 GBP

https://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=1761703&AucID=4049&Lot=1778&Val=98d70cf511a883350169042469581a1c

 

MARTINIANUS:

immagine.png

https://www.coinarchives.com/fc70d71a7fa226e4de0a82732db23200/img/roma/020/image00695.jpg

Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XX

Auction date: 29 October 2020

Lot number: 695

Price realized: 1,900 GBP   (Approx. 2,452 USD / 2,103 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

 

Lot description:

Martinian Æ Nummus. Nicomedia, AD 324. D N M MARTINIANO P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and eagle-tipped sceptre in left, captive on ground to right, X-IIΓ above, eagle to left holding wreath in beak; SMNΔ in exergue. RIC 46. 2.46g, 20mm, 11h.

Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.


Estimate: 2500 GBP

 

https://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=1714731&AucID=3897&Lot=695&Val=da70245082275691765b19474e59ffc5

 

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Disorientato
Illyricum65

Dall'altra parte dell'ideale ring la famiglia costantiniana:

L'Augusto Costantino

immagine.png

https://www.coinarchives.com/042ba7c2bd4414aa5b6b499ea476dc22/img/roma/020/image00691.jpg

Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XX

Auction date: 29 October 2020

 

Lot number: 691

Price realized: 24,000 GBP   (Approx. 30,972 USD / 26,561 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

 

 

Lot description:

Constantine I 'the Great' AV Solidus. Ticinum, AD 324-325. Head of Constantine to right, wearing plain Hellenistic-style diadem, gaze uplifted / CONSTANTINVS AVG, Victory seated to left on shield, holding Victory on globe in outstretched right hand and cradling cornucopiae with left; SMT in exergue. RIC 179; C. 102; Depeyrot 18/1; Alföldi 42. 4.40g, 19mm, 1h.

Near Mint State; pleasant light reddish toning. Extremely Rare; no other examples offered at auction in the past 2 decades.

From the Long Valley River Collection;
Ex Aurora Collection, Baldwin's Auctions Ltd - Dmitry Markov Coins & Medals - M&M Numismatics Ltd, The New York Sale XXXII, 8 January 2014, lot 54 (hammer: USD 35,000);
Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 38, 21 March 2007, lot 233;
Ex Bank Leu AG, Auction 13, 29-30 April 1975, lot 494.


Constantine gazes heavenward on this extremely desirable anepigraphic type, his beautifully engraved portrait larger and more impressive than those of Crispus and the Caesars Constantine and Constantius on parallel coin types (cited in L. Ramskold, Constantine's Vicennalia and the Death of Crispus, in Miša Rakocija (ed.), Niš and Byzantium Symposium XI, 2013, p.434). The interpretation of Christian theologian Eusebius infuses this obverse type – developed from AD 324 - with a religious dimension: the emperor looks "upwards in the manner of one reaching out to God in prayer", and is elevated as a divinely inspired ruler in a state of prayer (VC 4.15.1). According to Sutherland and Carson, 'the less known the ruler, the more explicit was the legend' (RIC VII, p.27), and the lack of inscription grants even greater prominence to this striking portrait of Constantine, ruling over a united empire by the time of minting. The varied depictions of male family members on obverse busts following the Battle of Chrysopolis makes the unified dynastic series of Constantine and his imperial household wearing matching band-diadems, as on this type, a rare and notable occurrence (RIC 108-13 Nicomedia; RIC VII, p.35). The band-diademed portrait, an innovation in imperial portraiture, was apt in the context of Constantine's vicennalia celebrations (starting in July AD 325). Such a development also followed in the wake of the decisive victory at Chrysopolis in September AD 324: this 'holy war', so termed by C. Odahl (Constantine and the Christian Empire, 2010, p.177), was fought and won on a huge scale, even accounting for exaggeration by Zosimus who numbers Constantine's army at 120,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry (Hist. Nova, II.22.1-2).

The prominent use of Victory herself holding in her hand a small Victoriola is certainly a thinly veiled reference to Constantine's triumph over his rival Licinius in the Civil War of AD 324, and perhaps alludes specifically to the Battles of the Hellespont and Chrysopolis. Eusebius later rejoiced that "with the impious defeated and the gloomy cloud of tyrannic power dispersed, the sun once more shone brightly" (VC, II. 19) and this present type was minted in that celebratory context, heralding the inception of a shining new era.
The following year in 326, Constantine would celebrate his vicennalia, a considerable achievement given the record of short-lived emperors of the late third and early fourth centuries. However what should have been the gleaming pinnacle of his reign to that point ended in turmoil rather than triumph, with the executions of Crispus and Fausta upon Constantine's orders reflecting disruption within the imperial family (discussed by L. Ramskold, "Constantine's Vicennalia and the Death of Crispus," 2013, pp.409ff).

Estimate: 20000 GBP

 

https://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=1714727&AucID=3897&Lot=691&Val=f80c6e2df35db9dc34de9cc839e7eb21

E il suo delfino, il Cesare Crispus, che a breve conoscerà la polvere (e la morte).

immagine.png

https://www.coinarchives.com/1d937ada115c159ee22c3073a46a8c0c/img/roma/020/image00696.jpg

Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XX

Auction date: 29 October 2020

Lot number: 696

Price realized: 48,000 GBP   (Approx. 61,943 USD / 53,123 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

 

Lot description:

 

Crispus AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 324-325. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate 'heroic' bust left, seen from behind, holding spear and shield to front, balteus over right shoulder / VIRTVS CAESARI N, Crispus on horseback charging to right, shield in left hand, about to spear enemy in posture of supplication before horse, his shield proffered before him; below, a second foeman lies to left on ground line beneath the horse, extending his left arm; SMNP in exergue. RIC 84-85 var. (unlisted officina); C. 164 var. (same); Depeyrot 35/6; Biaggi 2068 (same). 4.45g, 20mm, 6h.

Mint State; in spectacular state of preservation. Previously NGC graded (4632784-004), MS
5/5 - 4/5. Extremely Rare; one of apparently just three known examples.

From the Long Valley River Collection;
Acquired from Heritage World Coin Auctions.

Characterised in contemporary literature as having achieved 'great deeds' and being a 'most courageous Caesar' (Nazarius, Panegyrici Latini 10.3.4) and a ruler most dear to god (Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, 10.9.6), Crispus, first son of Constantine the Great, was seemingly deserving of the heroic manner in which he is portrayed on this solidus. Minted in 324, it is a manifestation of his father's gratitude to Crispus for his assistance in finally defeating Constantine's rival Augustus in the East, Licinius …

https://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=1714732&AucID=3897&Lot=696&Val=d4131e26eb114c68d90d57e60961391e

Buona giornata!

Illyricum

;)

 

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Stanco
Stilicho
Supporter

Mi sono rifatto gli occhi! 

Particolare la rappresentazione "frontale" di Licinio sul primo solido. Come ho letto, questa la troviamo anche su alcuni solidi di Massenzio e Costantino. Mi sembra di averla vista anche su alcune monete di Licinio II, o mi sbaglio?

Particolare anche  la moneta di Martiniano come Augusto. Non ricordavo lo fosse stato. 

Ciao da Stilicho

 

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caravelle82
2 ore fa, Illyricum65 dice:

Buongiorno,

ho trovato questo interessante video che descrive bene il quadro al termine della Tetrarchia e la battaglia decisiva per la sua fine.

Approfitto dell'occasione per creare un post "multimediale". Ok, la Storia... ma le monete?

Ve le propongo di seguito in quanto testimonianze dei protagonisti dell'evento.

Gli sconfitti:

LICINIO I:

immagine.png

https://www.coinarchives.com/8537309bcff9d6960ecf0ddeca7a9abd/img/roma/020/image00687.jpg

 

 

Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XX

 

 

Auction date: 29 October 2020

 

 

Lot number: 687

Price realized: 48,000 GBP   (Approx. 61,943 USD / 53,123 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

 

 

Lot description:

Licinius I AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 321-322. LICINIVS AVG OB D V FILII SVI, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust facing / IOVI CONS LICINI AVG, Jupiter, holding Victory on globe in right hand and sceptre in left, seated facing on high-backed throne set on platform inscribed SIC•X• SIC•XX• in two lines; at feet to left, eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, SMNΔ in exergue. RIC 41; Depeyrot 31/1; Alföldi 262; Calicó 5094; Hunter -. 5.30g, 22mm, 11h.

Fleur De Coin. Very Rare; in an exceptionally high state of preservation - certainly one of the finest specimens known.

From the Long Valley River Collection;
Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 100, 29 May 2017, lot 631 (hammer: CHF 70,000);
Ex A. Tkalec AG, 24 October 2003, lot 412.


This aureus is immediately striking for its facing portrait, a conceit rarely seen on Roman coins up until this date and not fully adopted until decades later in the 4th Century. Gold issues of Maxentius and Constantine bearing facing portraits, dating to the 310s, are the most obvious candidates for the inspiration behind this example, although some apparent innovation is extant in this aureus. The coins of the later Roman empire and onwards into the Byzantine period that are most associated with facing portraits routinely portray their subjects in a formulaic and generic manner, with little to distinguish between the physiognomical characteristics of the various emperors depicted, whereas this portrait of Licinius intimates at an intention to reflect his genuine appearance; a continuation and development of the images on the coins of Maxentius and Constantine, which were still heavily influenced by tetrarchic ideals of uniformity.

When considered alongside the best known sculptural portrait of Licinius in the Vatican Museums (XL VII 19 (511 B)), there are parallels in Licinius' depiction on this coin. Although the aureus' portrait is inherently more schematic by virtue of its medium, it is possible to see similarities in the wide eyes, positioned slightly too close together, the raised brows and the pronounced lines around his mouth and nose. A marble head in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna has also been attributed as Licinius in a compelling argument by R. R. R. Smith (The Public Image of Licinius I: Portrait Scuplture and Imperial Ideology in the Early Fourth Century, The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 87, 1997, pp.170-202), in which he specifically cites its relationship to the numismatic portraits as part of his reasoning behind the attribution (p.188). This further metes out the view that there was an attempt at individuality in the image of Licinius presented here.

While the obverse of this coin illustrates stylistic idiosyncrasy, the symbolism of the reverse iconography is indicative of the unsettled times in which this aureus was issued. In terms of technical skill and artistry, the die cutters have surpassed the quality on the obverse, achieving extraordinary detail in the depiction of Jupiter enthroned, but the semantic context of this image provides an insight into the state of the relationship between Licinius and his co-emperor Constantine in this period.

At surface level this coin, minted seemingly as part of his decennalia issue, can be read as Licinius simply giving thanks for his first ten years of co-rule with Constantine and seeking divine favour for another ten years, however the presence of OB D V (ob diem quinquennalium) in the obverse legend denotes this as marking the fifth year since his son, Licinius II, was pronounced Caesar. The presence of Jupiter, a standard type at Nicomedia, is a reflection of the differing faiths between the two emperors; as Constantine moved closer to monotheism and the Christian God, adopting the Chi-Rho symbol as a regular shield and standard device, Licinius staunchly upheld the supremacy of the traditional Roman pantheon, affiliating himself with Jupiter, who is portrayed as his patron and protector on most of his coinage. It is somewhat ironic that the year of his decennalia in 317 perhaps marked the end of peaceful co-rule with Constantine, and by the time at which this particular coin was issued it would be only a few years before the outbreak of civil war between the two emperors in 323. This conflict played out across several battles and eventually resulted in Licinius' defeat at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324 where Constantine's army fought under standards emblazoned with the Chi-Rho symbol, opposing Licinius' battle lines which were adorned with images of the gods of the Roman pantheon. Thus did the battlefield aptly mirror the succinct imagery of their respective coinage on a monumental scale.


Estimate: 45000 GBP

 

 

immagine.png

 

https://www.coinarchives.com/640e80e326f7412e2327d478ad5f56f8/img/roma/e78/image01778.jpg

 

 

Roma Numismatics Ltd > E-Sale 78

 

 

Auction date: 17 December 2020

 

 

Lot number: 1778

Price realized: 55 GBP   (Approx. 74 USD / 61 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

 

 

 

Lot description:

Licinius I BI Nummus. Antioch, AD 321-323. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing to left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath before, captive behind; X-IIΓ in right field, SMANTZ in exergue. RIC VII 35. 3.49g, 18mm, 11h.

Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

From a private UK collection.


Estimate: 75 GBP

 

 

https://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=1761703&AucID=4049&Lot=1778&Val=98d70cf511a883350169042469581a1c

 

 

 

MARTINIANUS:

immagine.png

https://www.coinarchives.com/fc70d71a7fa226e4de0a82732db23200/img/roma/020/image00695.jpg

 

 

Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XX

 

 

Auction date: 29 October 2020

 

 

Lot number: 695

Price realized: 1,900 GBP   (Approx. 2,452 USD / 2,103 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.

 

 

 

 

 

Lot description:

Martinian Æ Nummus. Nicomedia, AD 324. D N M MARTINIANO P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and eagle-tipped sceptre in left, captive on ground to right, X-IIΓ above, eagle to left holding wreath in beak; SMNΔ in exergue. RIC 46. 2.46g, 20mm, 11h.

Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.


Estimate: 2500 GBP

 

 

 

https://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=1714731&AucID=3897&Lot=695&Val=da70245082275691765b19474e59ffc5

 

 

 

Gran bel video,storia pura,raccontata al top🥇

Grazie interessantissimo

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Disorientato
Illyricum65
2 minuti fa, caravelle82 dice:

Gran bel video,storia pura,raccontata al top🥇

Grazie interessantissimo

Infatti quando l'ho visto ho pensato come potevo utilizzarlo in una discussione un po' ... diversa dal solito, più dinamica.

Spero di esserci riuscito.

Illyricum

;)

 

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caravelle82
23 minuti fa, Illyricum65 dice:

Infatti quando l'ho visto ho pensato come potevo utilizzarlo in una discussione un po' ... diversa dal solito, più dinamica.

Spero di esserci riuscito.

Illyricum

;)

 

Hai fatto centro,un buon metodo affiancare una cosa  all'altra😉

Edited by caravelle82
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Disorientato
Illyricum65
57 minuti fa, Stilicho dice:

Mi sono rifatto gli occhi! 

Particolare la rappresentazione "frontale" di Licinio sul primo solido. Come ho letto, questa la troviamo anche su alcuni solidi di Massenzio e Costantino. Mi sembra di averla vista anche su alcune monete di Licinio II, o mi sbaglio?

Particolare anche  la moneta di Martiniano come Augusto. Non ricordavo lo fosse stato. 

Ciao da Stilicho

 

681245

Sale: Triton VIII, Lot: 1245. Estimate $25000. 
Closing Date: Monday, 10 January 2005. 
Sold For $18000. This amount does not include the buyer’s fee.
 


LICINIUS II. Caesar, 317-324 AD. AV Aureus (5.32 gm, 12h). Nicomedia mint. Struck 320 AD. D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, facing bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust; wearing sideburns / IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES, Jupiter seated facing on throne set on base inscribed SIC•V•/SIC•X•, holding Victory set on globe in extended right hand and long sceptre in left hand; eagle standing left on base, head right, holding wreath in beak; SMNG. RIC VII 42; Depeyrot 31/2; Hunter -; DOC -; Calicó 5151. FDC. ($25,000)

This facing portrait of Licinius II, along with a parallel issue for his father, was the first frontal representation of an emperor, a presentation that would become standardized in the late Roman and Byzantine periods.

https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=58167

Ritratti frontali nel periodo tardo romano?

Theodosius II. 402-450, GOLDTheodosius II. 402-450, GOLD

Solidus, Constantinopolis 408-420. Av: DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, Kaiserbüste frontal. Rv: CONCORDI-A AVCC Gamma// CONOB, Constantinopolis frontal thronend , Kopf r. hält Zepter und kleine Victoria auf Globus. i. F. l. Stern. RIC X, S. 253, 202. =4,28 g 6h= (Graffiti im Av.) III

https://www.dorotheum.com/en/l/2786344/

Ciao

Illyricum

;)

 

Edited by Illyricum65
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modulo_largo

Io invece sono rimasto colpito dal nummo di Martiniano, le monete dei personaggi rari mi hanno sempre affascinato parecchio.. per dire, non la cambierei per un solido di imperatore comune..

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grigioviola
Il 20/2/2021 alle 17:15, Stilicho dice:

Mi sono rifatto gli occhi! 

Particolare la rappresentazione "frontale" di Licinio sul primo solido. Come ho letto, questa la troviamo anche su alcuni solidi di Massenzio e Costantino. Mi sembra di averla vista anche su alcune monete di Licinio II, o mi sbaglio?

Particolare anche  la moneta di Martiniano come Augusto. Non ricordavo lo fosse stato. 

Ciao da Stilicho

 

Ho il catalogo dell'asta Leu... Vederle stampate e ingrandite è uno spettacolo per gli occhi!

Complimenti a @Illyricum65 che come sempre ci porta con mano con sapienza divulgativa non comune!!!

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